Background and objective COVID-19 neurological manifestations have been progressively recognized. Among available MRI techniques, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows promise to study microstructure, inflammation, and edema. Previous DWI studies reported alterations in brain diffusivity in COVID-19 patients, as assessed by morphologic evaluation of brain DWI scans only. The aim of this study was to assess and quantify brain diffusion alterations in COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations. Methods 215 COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations (olfactory and/or other neurological disorders) and 36 normal controls were compared and studied with DWI and T1-weighted MRI scans. MRI scans were processed by a semi-automatic processing procedure specifically developed for the purpose of this study, and the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) was quantified in different brain tissues and individual white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) regions. Differences in ADC values were assessed between COVID-19 patients and normal controls, as well as in the COVID-19 patient population grouped by hospitalization and neurological symptoms. Results Among COVID-19 patients (median [IQR] = 52 [42 – 60] years of age, 58 % females), 91 were hospitalized and 26 needed intensive care. 84 patients had hyposmia/ageusia only, while 131 ones showed other neurological disorders. COVID-19 patients showed significantly increased ADC values in the WM and in several GM regions (p < 0.001). ADC values were significantly correlated with MRI time from disease onset (p < 0.05). Hospitalized patients showed significantly higher ADC alteration than non-hospitalized patients in all brain tissues; similarly, COVID-19 patients with neurological disorders showed significantly higher ADC values than those with olfactory loss only. ADC alteration was highest in patients with cognitive or memory disorder and in those with encephalitis or meningitis. ADC values were neither associated with the duration of hospitalization nor with the need for intensive care. Conclusion Current findings suggest DWI potential as a non-invasive marker of neuroinflammation in COVID-19, and the transient nature of the same. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

(2023). Brain diffusion alterations in patients with COVID-19 pathology and neurological manifestations [journal article - articolo]. In NEUROIMAGE. CLINICAL. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10446/239416

Brain diffusion alterations in patients with COVID-19 pathology and neurological manifestations

Capelli, Serena;Remuzzi, Andrea;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background and objective COVID-19 neurological manifestations have been progressively recognized. Among available MRI techniques, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows promise to study microstructure, inflammation, and edema. Previous DWI studies reported alterations in brain diffusivity in COVID-19 patients, as assessed by morphologic evaluation of brain DWI scans only. The aim of this study was to assess and quantify brain diffusion alterations in COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations. Methods 215 COVID-19 patients with neurological manifestations (olfactory and/or other neurological disorders) and 36 normal controls were compared and studied with DWI and T1-weighted MRI scans. MRI scans were processed by a semi-automatic processing procedure specifically developed for the purpose of this study, and the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) was quantified in different brain tissues and individual white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) regions. Differences in ADC values were assessed between COVID-19 patients and normal controls, as well as in the COVID-19 patient population grouped by hospitalization and neurological symptoms. Results Among COVID-19 patients (median [IQR] = 52 [42 – 60] years of age, 58 % females), 91 were hospitalized and 26 needed intensive care. 84 patients had hyposmia/ageusia only, while 131 ones showed other neurological disorders. COVID-19 patients showed significantly increased ADC values in the WM and in several GM regions (p < 0.001). ADC values were significantly correlated with MRI time from disease onset (p < 0.05). Hospitalized patients showed significantly higher ADC alteration than non-hospitalized patients in all brain tissues; similarly, COVID-19 patients with neurological disorders showed significantly higher ADC values than those with olfactory loss only. ADC alteration was highest in patients with cognitive or memory disorder and in those with encephalitis or meningitis. ADC values were neither associated with the duration of hospitalization nor with the need for intensive care. Conclusion Current findings suggest DWI potential as a non-invasive marker of neuroinflammation in COVID-19, and the transient nature of the same. Future longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.
articolo
2023
Caroli, Anna; Capelli, Serena; Napolitano, Angela; Cabrini, Giulia; Arrigoni, Alberto; Pezzetti, Giulio; Previtali, Mattia; Longhi, Luca Giovanni; Zangari, Rosalia; Lorini, Ferdinando Luca; Sessa, Maria; Remuzzi, Andrea; Gerevini, Simonetta
(2023). Brain diffusion alterations in patients with COVID-19 pathology and neurological manifestations [journal article - articolo]. In NEUROIMAGE. CLINICAL. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10446/239416
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/10446/239416
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