The oxidation of N-alkylamides by O2, catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) and Co(II) salt, leads under mild conditions to carbonyl derivatives (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, imides) whose distribution depends on the nature of the alkyl group and on the reaction conditions. Primary N-benzylamides lead to imides and aromatic aldehydes at room temperature without any appreciable amount of carboxylic acids, while under the same conditions nonbenzylic derivatives give carboxylic acids and imides with no trace of aldehydes, even at very low conversion. These results are explained through hydrogen abstraction by the phthalimide-N-oxyl (PINO) radical, whose reactivity with benzyl derivatives is governed by polar effects, so that benzylamides are much more reactive than the corresponding aldehydes. The enthalpic effect is, however, dominant with nonbenzylic amides, making the corresponding aldehydes much more reactive than the starting amides. The importance of the bond dissociation energy (BDE) of the O-H bond in NHPI is emphasized.

(2002). Aerobic oxidation of N-alkylamides catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide under mild conditions. Polar and enthalpic effects [journal article - articolo]. In JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10446/242090

Aerobic oxidation of N-alkylamides catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide under mild conditions. Polar and enthalpic effects

Fontana, Francesca;
2002-01-01

Abstract

The oxidation of N-alkylamides by O2, catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide (NHPI) and Co(II) salt, leads under mild conditions to carbonyl derivatives (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, imides) whose distribution depends on the nature of the alkyl group and on the reaction conditions. Primary N-benzylamides lead to imides and aromatic aldehydes at room temperature without any appreciable amount of carboxylic acids, while under the same conditions nonbenzylic derivatives give carboxylic acids and imides with no trace of aldehydes, even at very low conversion. These results are explained through hydrogen abstraction by the phthalimide-N-oxyl (PINO) radical, whose reactivity with benzyl derivatives is governed by polar effects, so that benzylamides are much more reactive than the corresponding aldehydes. The enthalpic effect is, however, dominant with nonbenzylic amides, making the corresponding aldehydes much more reactive than the starting amides. The importance of the bond dissociation energy (BDE) of the O-H bond in NHPI is emphasized.
articolo
2002
Minisci, Francesco; Punta, Carlo; Recupero, Francesco; Fontana, Francesca; Pedulli, Gian Franco
(2002). Aerobic oxidation of N-alkylamides catalyzed by N-hydroxyphthalimide under mild conditions. Polar and enthalpic effects [journal article - articolo]. In JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Retrieved from https://hdl.handle.net/10446/242090
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